Research articles

By Dr. Vishal Bhargava , Dr. Neelima Singh , Dr. Richa Bhargava
Corresponding Author Dr. Vishal Bhargava
Biochemistry Department , G.R Medical College, F-29 M Block Thatipur - India 474011
Submitting Author Dr. Vishal Bhargava
Other Authors Dr. Neelima Singh
G.R Medical College Gwalior Department of Biochemistry, - India

Dr. Richa Bhargava
DRDO Department of Biotechnology, - India


IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease), SW-620, IL-8 (Interleukin-8),Ozagrel, LPS (Lipopolysaccharide).

Bhargava V, Singh N, Bhargava R. SW-620 Cells Evoke IL-8 Expression and Downregulation by Ozagrel: An Intervention in IBD.. WebmedCentral CELLULAR BIOLOGY 2013;4(4):WMC004182
doi: 10.9754/journal.wmc.2013.004182

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License(CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Submitted on: 05 Apr 2013 04:36:34 PM GMT
Published on: 06 Apr 2013 02:48:48 PM GMT


Inflammatory bowel disease is chronic uncontrolled inflammation characterized by intense mucosal recruitment of activated leukocytes. Here we have developed an in vitro model for IBD using colon cancer cell line SW-620. Colon epithelial cell line HT-29 expressed elevated IL-8 levels when induced with LPS isolated from various bacterial strains. In this in-vitro model of IBD, IL-8 was playing a key role in inflammation cascade. Action of anti-inflammatory drug Ozagrel was studied and was found to block the up regulation of IL-8. 


Inflammation can be defined as a series of non-specific defense mechanism of body, in which cells and different mediators respond to tissue injury (Elenkov IJ 2005). Inflammation, the response of tissue to injury, is characterized in the acute phase by increased blood flow and vascular permeability along with the accumulation of fluid, leukocytes, and inflammatory mediators such as cytokines. In the sub acute/chronic phase it is characterized by the development of specific humoral and cellular immune responses to the pathogen(s) present at the site of tissue injury (Carol A. 1997).

Most cytokines involved in the inflammation processes are multifunctional. They are pleiotropic molecules that elicit their effects locally or systemically in an autocrine or paracrine manner (Carol A. 1997). Cytokines are involved in extensive networks that involve synergistic (proinflammatory cytokines) as well as antagonistic interactions (anti-inflammatory cytokines) and exhibit both negative and positive regulatory effects on various target cells (Adams G 2003).

Some times immune cells fail to distinguish among the foreign and its native cells, as a result the process of inflammation is targeted towards its own cells, the condition is termed as Auto inflammation.

One such condition is Inflammatory Bowel Disease in which the gut micro biota if through any pathway gets interacted with its own underlying immune cells; the process of inflammation towards these microorganisms begins there by leading to the destruction of tissue as such

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to two chronic diseases that cause inflammation of the intestines: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). The hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease is chronic uncontrolled inflammation characterized by intense mucosal recruitment of activated leukocytes (Hanauer. S 2006). Although the diseases have some features in common, there are some important differences.

Over the past 15 years wide variety of candidate genes have been studied for IBD. Significant linkages have been reported on chromosomes 1,3,6,7,12,14,16 and 19. Detailed mapping of chromosome 16 resulted in identification of the gene responsible, at least in part for this linkage (Podolsky D.K. 2002).This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein designated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 NOD2 also known as caspase activation and recruitment domain CARD15 (Hanauer B 2006). This is a polymorphic gene the product of which is involved in the innate immune system. It is the first gene to be clearly associated with IBD, and >60 mutations have been recognized, 3 of which have been linked to development of CD. The mechanism whereby defects in the NOD2 gene lead to the development of IBD remains unclear. The NOD2 gene is expressed mainly in monocyte/macrophage cell lines, where it has a role in host signaling pathway. Reasonable data suggest that mucosa of the patients with established Crohn’s disease is dominated by CD4+ lymphocytes with a type 1 helper-T-cell (Th1) phenotype, characterized by production of IFN-g, IL-2 IL-8. In contrast the mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis may be dominated by CD4+ lymphocytes with an atypical type 2 helper-T-cell (Th2) phenotype, characterized by the production of transforming growth factor b (TGF-b) and IL-5 (Podolsky. D.K 2002). 


SW-620 are adherent colonic epithelial cells obtained from the patients of colorectal adenocarcinoma but with different cellular products mainly carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA); transforming growth factor beta binding protein; mucin. The cell line used in the present study was purchased from American Type Culture collection (ATCC),ManassasVA20108,USA.

Reagents used in the study like DMEM Powder, Bovine serum albumin (BSA), DMSO, Sodium bi carbonate, Trizma, EDTA and others were obtained from Sigma (Sigma Aldrich co. St. Louis MO USA).

ELISA kit for both IL-8 was quantitated from the cell supernatants using DuoSet ELISA Development KITS. Sandwich ELISAs are sensitive enzyme immunoassays that measure soluble    levels of proteins in biological samples. R&D SYSTEM provides Complete ELISA kits that offer accurate and   reproducible results with no development time DuoSet kits contain the basic components required to develop an immunoassay to measure natural or recombinant proteins. All these were obtained from R&D Systems, Inc614 McKinley Place NE,Minneapolis,USA.


In our study SW-620 cells were cultured with a medium consisting of DMEM, 10%FETAL BOVINE SERUM (FBS) and 1% penicillin –streptomycin antibiotic solution .The cells were incubated at 37°C under a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air.


Around 80% confluency stage, the cells were sub cultured. Medium contained in the flask was completely discarded using a sterile disposable pipette. Cells were washed with 1X PBS so as to remove the dead cells and the cell debris. Cells were treated with trypsin-EDTA solution (0.25%W/V) and kept at37°C in the CO2 incubator for 2-5 mins. The cells were detached from the substratum, as monitored under the phase contrast microscope. Once the cells were completely detached, immediately excess amount of complete medium was added to the cells. This is because a prolonged exposure of cells with the trypsin -EDTA solution is known to cause cell death. The serum contained in the complete medium acts as an inhibitor of trypsin.Flushinggently with a pipette tip mixed the contents of the flask. From this cell suspension, a sample was subjected to counting using a hemocytometer. The desired no. of cells was selected by diluting it with complete medium. Seed the cell suspension diluted with the medium in the respective plate. (12, 24, or 96 well plate) according to the requirement of the experiment. Incubate the respective plates over night at 37°C in the CO2 incubator prior to any treatment, for ensuring proper growth and spreading of cells.

Treatment with LPS and the drug addition

Specific cell line was selected based on the experiment and the cells were allowed to get confluent. Post confluent cells were seeded in 96 well plate as described above, with a concentration of 30,000-40,000 cells/well. Plate was then left at CO2 incubator for over night incubation. As designed for the experiment 1) if the cells are to be pre-incubated with drug followed by LPS treatment, the cells in the plate were incubated with drug in different concentrations. Based on the solubility of the drug if soluble in water was directly diluted with medium and applied to the cells or if insoluble was the diluted in DMSO and the applied. 3 hours later of drug incubation cells were treated with LPS to get inflamed. LPS treatment was optimized using different strains of bacteria and maximum efficient strain to cause inflammation was chosen for the experiment. Based on the volume of the cell suspension in the well LPS was introduced respectively. Followed this plate containing cells were incubated in CO2 incubator for overnight. Next day supernatant from each well was collected by centrifuging plate at 1500 rpm for 15 min. Supernatant from the plate was collected in sterile eppendorfs and was stored as samples for ELISA at -80°C. The plate with the adherent cells was then undertaken for the MTT assay for measuring the cell viability. To assess the maximum tolerance of cells for the given concentration of drug MTT assay was performed. ELISA was performed as per the user manual provided with the R&D Duo kit system. 


 The Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic autoinflammatory disease where intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) gets differentiated as cancer cells when induced by some inflammatory agents. Normally in-vivo these epithelial cells remain separated from underlying immune cells by a membrane lining. In most of the cases of IBD the underlying immune cells comes in direct contact with micro-biota of intestine resulting in the process of inflammation (Hendrickson BA 2002), thereby leading to uncontrolled tissue destruction (Weber CR 2007).

The process of inflammation could be studied with the help of certain tumour markers. In preparing the in-vitro model for IBD several cytokines were used as prominent markers whose upregulation determined the stages of inflammation (Carol A 1997).

In-vitro model for IBD could be developed by using colon cancer cell line like HT-29, CaCo-2, SW-620 and others which show some inflammatory responses. In our experiment we have used SW-620 cell which expressed various proteins indicating inflammatory responses (Haller D 2004).

Development of inflammatory conditions in SW-620 cell line could be achieved through various ways.  In several studies the bacterial DNA or bacteria as a whole were confirmed to express inflammatory responses (Haller D 2000 & Mahmood A 2003). The idea to introduce Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a product of gram negative bacterial cell wall as an inflammatory agent is a new approach of our research laboratory for this study since no study in this regard has been made so far.

In normal intestinal flora (in-vivo) numbers of bacterial strains exist but few of them have been found to be pathogenic in nature. LPS was isolated from different bacterial strains and were introduced in SW-620 cells. In the selection of LPS we used strains of E.coli B-4 (present in abundance in intestine) to elicit infection. It was found that E.coli B-4 did not induce much inflammatory conditions in SW-620 cells. Then LPS was isolated from different strains of bacteria like Salmonella Minnesota (S.Minn.), Salmonella Enteritidis (S.Ent.) and Pseudomonas to study the inflammatory reactions. It was observed that S.Minn and S.Ent were most potent inflammatory agents.

After developing inflammatory conditions in colon cancer cell line SW-620 with LPS isolated from bacterial strains of S.Minn and S.Ent we then checked inflammatory responses with cytokines as a marker (Neurath MF 2003). Cytokines are categorized under pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory in nature. In our present study we selected Interleukin-8 (IL-8) cytokine for observing the effect of LPS. LPS induction expressed different levels of IL-8 with respect to each bacterial strain (Puleston J 2005). Upregulation of IL-8 cytokine (proinflammatory) confirmed the inflammatory conditions in given cell line.

Further in our study to check the inflammation process developed, the effect of certain anti-inflammatory drugs was studied in the same (BotomanVA1991). The popularly used drug for IBD like Ozagrel at different concentration was introduced to inhibit the upregulated cytokine IL-8 (Bonner GB 1996). Complete or above 70% inhibition of upregulated IL-8 with minimum concentration of Ozagrel was regarded as efficiency of drug to mimic the in-vivo model of IBD (Mulder J 1988) (Fig.1).  

Dose response curve (DRC) was set up for each given concentration of drug with respect to bacterial strain and cell line to study the cytotoxic effect and most effective concentration with least cytotoxic effect was analyzed (Fig 2).


SW-620 cells expressed different levels of inflammatory processes for in-vitro model of inflammatory bowel disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from strains of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Minnesota of gram-negative bacteria induced inflammation in the monolayer and co-culture system of inflammation. IL-8 levels were highly expressed in the process of inflammation. Ozagrel at different concentration was found effective in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. 


1. Araki Y, Sugihara H, Hattori T. (2006) In vitro effects of dextran sulfate sodium on a Caco-2 cell line and plausible mechanisms for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Oncol Rep.; 16(6): 1357-62.
2. Bisping G, Lügering N, Lütke-Brintrup S, Pauels HG, Schürmann G, Domschke W, Kucharzik T. (2001) Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) reveal increased induction capacity of intracellular interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in peripheral CD8+ lymphocytes co-cultured with intestinal epithelial cells. Clin Exp Immunol.123 (1): 15-22.
3. Bonner GB, Ruderman WB. (1993) 5-Aminosalicylic acid preparations in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. In: Inflammopharmacology.Norwell,Mass.: Kluwer Academic, 247-62.
4. Bonner GF. (1996) Current medical therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. South Med J; 89 (6): 556-66.
5. BotomanVA, Kozarek RA, Taylor RB, (1991). Inflammatory bowel disease difficult medical management.Philadelphia: Saunders, 374-86
6. Carol A. Feghali,Timothy M. Wright. (1997) Cytokines in acute and chronic inflammation Frontiers in Bioscience 2, d12-26, 12
7. Farmer RG, Whelan G, Fazio VW. (1985) Long-term follow-up of patients with Crohn's disease. Relationship between the clinical pattern and prognosis. Gastroenterology; 88:1818-25.
8. GriffithsAM, Ohlsson A,ShermanPM, Sutherland LR. (1995) Meta-analysis of enteral nutrition as a primary treatment of active Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 108:1056-67.
9. Haller D, Bode C, Hammes WP, Pfeifer AM, Schiffrin EJ, Blum S. (2000) Non-pathogenic bacteria elicit a differential cytokine response by intestinal epithelial cell/leucocyte co-cultures. Gut.  ; 47(1): 79-87.
10. Haller D, Holt L, Parlesak A, Zanga J, Bäuerlein A, Sartor RB, Jobin C. (2004) Differential effect of immune cells on non-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Immunology.;112(2):310-20.
11. Helzer JE, Chammas S, Norland CC,StillingsWA, Alpers DH. (1984) A study of the association between Crohn's disease and psychiatric illness. Gastroenterology; 86:324-30.
12. Hendrickson BA, Gokhale R, Cho JH. (2002) Clinical aspects and pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Microbiol Rev.; 15(1): 79-94.
13. Kaplan MA, Korelitz BI. (1988) Narcotic dependence in inflammatory bowel disease. J Clin Gastroenterol; 10:275-8.
14. M. I. Torres, M. Le Discorde, P. Lorite, A. Ríos, M. A. Gassull, A. Gil, J. Maldonado, J. Dausset and E. D. Carosella (2004) Expression of HLA-G in inflammatory bowel disease provides a potential way to distinguish between ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. International Immunology, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 579-583.
15. Mahmood Akhtar, James L. Watson, Aisha Nazli, and Derek M. McKay (2003) Bacterial DNA evokes epithelial IL-8 production by a MAPK-dependent, NFκΒ-independent pathway The FASEB Journal express article 10.1096/fj.02-0950fje.
16. Markus F Neurath (2003) Inflammatory bowel disease: Cytokines and cytokine therapies Infect Immun 74(7): 4075–4082.
17. Mulder CJ, Tytgat GN, Weterman IT, Dekker W, Blok P, Schrijver M. (1988) Double-blind comparison of slow-release 5-aminosalicylate and sulfasalazine in remission maintenance in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology; 95:1449-53.
18. Nugent FW,RoyMA. (1989) Duodenal Crohn's disease: an analysis of 89 cases. Am J Gastroenterol; 84:249-54.
19. Owen D. Bayless TM (1989) Endoscopic biopsy Current management of inflammatory bowel disease.Philadelphia: Decker, 1989:13-6.
20. Podolsky DK. (2002) Inflammatory bowel disease Engl J Med. 8; 347(6): 417- 29.
21. Puleston J, Cooper M, Murch S, Bid K, Makh S, Ashwood P, Bingham AH, Green H, Moss P, Dhillon A, Morris R, Strobel S, Gelinas R, Pounder RE, Platt A. (2005) Distinct subset of chemokines in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 21, 109-120.
22. Rampton DS, Phil D. (1998) New treatments for inflammatory bowel disease.
23. Roberts SE, Williams JG, Yeates D, Goldacre MJ (2007)Mortality in patients with and without colectomy admitted to hospital for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: record linkage studies.BMJ. 17;335(7628):1033.
24. Satsu H, Ishimoto Y, Nakano T, Mochizuki T, Iwanaga T, Shimizu M. (2006) Induction by activated macrophage-like THP-1 cells of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 monolayers via tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Exp Cell Res. 15; 312(19): 3909-19.
25. Weber CR, Turner JR. (2007) Inflammatory bowel disease: is it really just another break in the wall? Gut; 56(1): 6-8.

Source(s) of Funding

Source of funding was from the Autonomous society of GR Medical College, Gwalior

Competing Interests



This article has been downloaded from WebmedCentral. With our unique author driven post publication peer review, contents posted on this web portal do not undergo any prepublication peer or editorial review. It is completely the responsibility of the authors to ensure not only scientific and ethical standards of the manuscript but also its grammatical accuracy. Authors must ensure that they obtain all the necessary permissions before submitting any information that requires obtaining a consent or approval from a third party. Authors should also ensure not to submit any information which they do not have the copyright of or of which they have transferred the copyrights to a third party.
Contents on WebmedCentral are purely for biomedical researchers and scientists. They are not meant to cater to the needs of an individual patient. The web portal or any content(s) therein is neither designed to support, nor replace, the relationship that exists between a patient/site visitor and his/her physician. Your use of the WebmedCentral site and its contents is entirely at your own risk. We do not take any responsibility for any harm that you may suffer or inflict on a third person by following the contents of this website.

4 reviews posted so far

SW-620 Cells Evoke IL-8 Expression and Downregulation by Ozagrel: An Intervention in IBD
Posted by Anonymous Reviewer on 04 May 2013 07:43:52 PM GMT
This review will not be counted towards final review score for this article and for its inclusion into WebmedCentral Peer Reviewer articles because review was posted by an anonymous reviewer.

SW-620 Cells Evoke IL-8 Expression And Downregulation By Ozagrel: An Intervention In IBD.
Posted by Anonymous Reviewer on 16 Apr 2013 04:21:51 AM GMT

SW-620 Cells Evoke IL-8 Expression and Downregulation by Ozagrel: An Intervention in IBD
Posted by Anonymous Reviewer on 15 Apr 2013 11:11:53 AM GMT

1 comment posted so far

Please use this functionality to flag objectionable, inappropriate, inaccurate, and offensive content to WebmedCentral Team and the authors.


Author Comments
0 comments posted so far


What is article Popularity?

Article popularity is calculated by considering the scores: age of the article
Popularity = (P - 1) / (T + 2)^1.5
P : points is the sum of individual scores, which includes article Views, Downloads, Reviews, Comments and their weightage

Scores   Weightage
Views Points X 1
Download Points X 2
Comment Points X 5
Review Points X 10
Points= sum(Views Points + Download Points + Comment Points + Review Points)
T : time since submission in hours.
P is subtracted by 1 to negate submitter's vote.
Age factor is (time since submission in hours plus two) to the power of 1.5.factor.

How Article Quality Works?

For each article Authors/Readers, Reviewers and WMC Editors can review/rate the articles. These ratings are used to determine Feedback Scores.

In most cases, article receive ratings in the range of 0 to 10. We calculate average of all the ratings and consider it as article quality.

Quality=Average(Authors/Readers Ratings + Reviewers Ratings + WMC Editor Ratings)