# Abstract

In our recent previous study, we in anatomy and histology modeled meridian channels as a physiological system based on published biomedical data. We think, the meridian system is mostly constructed with interstices in or between other physiological systems; major components in the meridians are loosen connective tissues that consist of electrolytes, cells and proteins; the electrolytes provide rich fluids and ions for processing, propagation or transportation of information, matter and energy in the meridians. In this research, we propose infophysics models to answer how information, matter and energy are processed, propagandized, or transported in the meridians. We apply thermodynamics to macroscopically present relationships of entropy, energy, work, heat, pressure, volume and temperature; physics involves the two laws of thermodynamics, van der Waal’s equation, Gibbs equation and Maxwell’s equations of thermodynamics. We apply classic statistical mechanics to microscopically elucidate information amount and matter (or energy) flux for the complicated irreversible process; physics involves Gibbs entropy, Onsager method or formulation, such as heat conduction density (Fourier law), particle diffusion density (Fick law), electric current density (Ohm law), or shear stress of viscosity (Newton law), Poisson-Boltzmann equation and Boltzmann equation. We apply electrodynamics to macroscopically describe electromagnetic fields and ions motion; physics involves Maxwell’s equations of electrodynamics, Newtonian momentum transfer equation, Ohm’s law, Lorentz forces, Bernoulli’s separation method, conservations of charges and masses, and Poynting’s theorem. We apply constitutive equation in fluid mechanics to indicate stress - strain relationship. We apply Schrodinger equation in quantum statistical mechanics to estimate ion channel currents. We also think information has different expressions and levels (forms). In a view of sciences, there are expressions of physics, chemistry, physiology, medicine, et al. In a view of arts, there are expressions of songs, music, photos, draws, tables, words, et al. In a view of physics, the highest level of information contains related or correlated equations, such as Maxwell equations of electromagnetism or thermodynamics, Newton’s laws of mechanics, Einstein’s relativities; the higher level of information is a theoretic formula, such as Schrodinger equation, Boltzmann entropy formula, Newton’s gravitational law; the middle level of information is a function, such as a natural exponential function; the basic level of information is a property or an attribute of a function, e.g., a frequency of a wave function. Lower level information can be resolved or expressed with or included in higher level information, e.g., dual properties of wave and particle of an electron can be expressed with a probability wave function, and the function can be included in and resolved with Schrodinger equation.

**Keywords:** Interstices, Electrolytes, Thermodynamics, Electrodynamics, Entropy, Statistical, Fluid

# Introduction

Scientists or clinicians have proposed many models or hypotheses to discover the mechanisms of meridian (- collateral) channels in human bodies. One of hypotheses is that the Chinese medicine system is a special channel network comprising of the skin with abundant nerves and nociceptive receptors of various types and deeper connective tissues inside the body with the flowing interstitial fluid system [1]. Another hypothesis of multi-factors is involved in direct communication pathway of the cell junction (specially keeping the relevant cellular direct communication relation in individual development), the extra-cellular matrix stress network system and its biophysical message transmission--force--meridian signs transformation-inter-cellular massage integration [2] Mathematical [3], informative [4] and birdcage [5] models have been proposed too. However the mechanism of the meridian channel system is still unclear.

In our recent previous study [6], we in anatomy and histology modeled meridian channels as a physiological system based on published biomedical data [7-9]. We think, the meridian system is mostly constructed with interstices in or between systems of the integumentary, the nervous, the muscular, the cardiovascular, the skeletal, the lymphatic, the endocrine, the respiratory, the digestive, the urinary and the reproductive; major components in the meridians are loosen connective tissues that consist of electrolytes, cells and proteins; the electrolytes provide rich fluids and ions for processing, propagation or transportation of information, matter and energy in the meridians. The meridian system is mostly in longitudinal direction (ascending from toes or fingers), is approximately symmetric about the middle line (from the nose to the umbilicus or spinal cord), and is roughly parallel to systems of the integumentary, the nervous, the muscular, the cardiovascular, the skeletal, the lymphatic, and the endocrine. We hypothesized the orientation, the symmetry and the parallel of the systems are formed during the embryo’s development. Similar to systems of the nervous, the cardiovascular, the lymphatic, the endocrine, the respiratory, the digestive and the urinary, the meridian system should be unblocked according to the theory of Chinese medicine. If the systems are blocked, some diseases could occur.

However, we have not modeled how information, matter and energy are processed, propagandized or transported in the meridian system and we have not found any related report in a view of biomedical infophysics. We think storage, propagation (or transportation) and processing of information are physical. In this paper, we consider infophysics as a combination of information and physics, and present our infophysics models for processing, transportation or propagation of information, matter and energy in the meridian system. We believe our models in this paper will be helpful to keep health people from or treat patients with the meridian diseases.

# Models

We think information has different expressions and levels (forms) [6]. In a view of sciences, there are expressions of physics, chemistry, physiology, medicine, et al. In a view of arts, there are expressions of songs, music, photos, draws, tables, words, et al. In a view of physics, the highest level of information contains related or correlated equations, such as Maxwell equations of electromagnetism or thermodynamics, Newton’s laws of mechanics, Einstein’s relativities; the higher level of information is a theoretic formula, such as Schrodinger equation, Boltzmann entropy formula, Newton’s gravitational law; the middle level of information is a function, such as a natural exponential function; the basic level of information is a property or an attribute of a function, e.g., a frequency or an amplitude of a wave function. Lower level information can be (approximately) resolved or expressed with or included in higher level information, e.g., dual properties of wave and particle of an electron can be expressed with a probability wave function, and the function can be included in and resolved with Schrodinger equation. The levels from the middle to the highest are correspondent to approach the natural laws; the basic levels are correspondent to approach properties or attributes of the natural objects. See Fig. 1.

Fig. 2 illustrates our framework of main networks of information, matter and energy in a human body. In this investigation, we focus on the meridian network; and we first introduce our meridian models in physiology; then based on the physiological model, we propose our models for processing, transportation or propagation of information, matter and energy in the meridians in physics.

**A. Biomedicine**

Fig. 3 shows our model of meridian channel system for human embryos in physiology, anatomy and histology. The meridians are interstices around systems of the nervous, the cardiovascular, the digestive and the cells. We believe the meridian system is formed during embryos developing in parallel to other physiological systems, such as the nervous, the cardiac vascular, the muscle and the skin [6].

Fig. 4 shows our model of meridian channel system of human adults. The meridians are interstices in or between systems of the integumentary, the nervous, the muscular, the cardiovascular and the skeletal. The nervous system samples, collects, encodes, decodes, transmits and processes information from other systems and controls the other systems [1].

Our modeling results suggest that, the meridian system is mostly constructed with interstices in or between other physiological systems; major components in the meridians are loosen connective tissues that consist of electrolytes, cells and proteins, the electrolytes provide rich fluids and ions for processing, transportation or propagation of information, matter and energy in the meridians(6).

**B. Infophysics**

A biological system obeys laws of physics and chemistry [10]. We mostly model processing, propagation or transportation of information, matter and energy in the meridian system with laws and theorems in physics, though chemistry is involved too. The dominative laws and theorems in physics involve thermodynamics, classic statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, fluid mechanics and dynamics, quantum statistical mechanics.

# Application

**A. Electric shock**

If we accidentally get an electric shock by touching a charged object with our hands, we will feel externally applied electric currents flow along our arms6. The externally applied electric currents or fields approximately follow Ohm’s law of electricity (equation 14), ions motion approximately follows equations 18 or 22. We would like explain the phenomenon in this way: the externally applied electric currents or fields flow in our meridian channel system, the applied fields stimulate our nervous sensors along the meridians, the sensors sample and collect the information, the nerves transmit the information to our brains, see Fig. 4. This evident strongly supports our models of meridian channel system.

**B. Interstitial fluid flow**

Experimental data of interstitial fluid flow [1, 26] could be described with equations 26 and 27.

**C. Interstices**

We can see interstices when we cut fresh meat, such as beefs or porks. We consider the interstices as the meridian channels.

# Discussion

Though, we can solve the equations with the boundary conditions in theory, it is very difficult to obtain analytical solutions of the equations today. Future study could be how to solve the equations analytically or digitally; and how to fit the experimental data with the calculated results. We believe our models are also applicable to other biomedical systems in principle.

# Conclusion

Information has different expressions and levels (forms). In a view of sciences, there are expressions of physics, chemistry, physiology, medicine, et al. In a perspective of physics, the highest level of information contains related or correlated equations, such as Maxwell equations of electromagnetism or thermodynamics, Newton’s laws of mechanics, Einstein’s relativities; the higher level of information is a theoretic formula, such as Schrödinger equation, Boltzmann entropy formula, Newton’s gravitational law; the middle level of information is a function, such as a natural exponential function; the basic level of information is a property or an attribute of a function. Lower level information can be resolved or expressed with or included in higher level information.

# Acknowledgment

The authors thank Miss Vivien Cheng of Princeton University for comments and English corrections.

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